How to Choose High Speed CNC Cutting Tool Material ?
CNC cutting tool is one of the most important parts in machined processing equipment. At the same time, the tool material has great influence on tool life, machining efficiency, machining quality and machining cost.
Tool need to bear high pressure, high temperature, friction, impact and vibration effect when cutting. Therefore, the cnc cutting tool material should have hardness, wear resistance, strength, toughness, heat resistance and technological performances and economy performance.
Below are important cognitions to choose the cnc cutting tool material.
High speed cutting machining requirements to the tool material.
Tool technology is crucial to high speed machining. The cutting temperature is very high when high speed cutting processing, so the failure of the high speed cutting tool depends on the thermal properties of cutting tool materials (including the melting point of cutting tool, heat resistance, oxidation resistance, high temperature mechanical properties, thermal shock resistance etc). When high speed dry cutting, high speed hard cutting and high speed cutting black metal, the maximum cutting speed is limited by the tool material heat resistance.
And when high speed machining low thermal conductivity and high hardness material, easy to form the serrated chip, while high speed milling will directly produce some variation, thus lead to cutting tool and internal stress of high frequency cycles variation and speed up the tool wear. So when high speed cutting machining, it not only has a certain requirements for the basic properties, and also has special requirements for cutting tool material with high heat resistance, thermal shock, good high temperature mechanical properties and high reliability.
The types of high speed cnc cutting tool materials
Currently, we mainly used in the following high speed cutting tool materials: Polycrystalline diamond tool, polycrystalline cubic boron nitride cutting tool, ceramic knives, TIC carbide, ultrafine grain cemented carbide, coated tool and powder metallurgy HSS cutting tool etc.
Above cutting tool materials have their own characteristics, so the suitable workpiece material and cutting speed range are different.
The selection of cnc cutting tool materials for non-ferrous metal and alloy
Aluminum and its alloy are the most widely used in light metal material in modern industrial, and has excellent characteristics of free cutting, and can use high cutting speed and feed speed for processing. It also can be a milling, turning, boring, drilling and other processing methods. In general, we choose the following cutting tool materials to produce them：
- Polycrystalline diamond
- Coating carbide
- Ultrafine grain cemented carbide cutting tools
The selection of cnc cutting tool materials for cast iron and steel
In general, the speed of the maximum cutting cast iron is about 500-1500m/min, and even the fine milling can reach 2000m/min. The choice of cutting speed depends on the selection of tool material, while tool material will be selected according to the machining mode of the workpiece and the composition of the workpiece material, metallographic structure and mechanical properties. Based on the above points, we will choice these tool materials:
- Polycrystalline cubic boron nitride cutting tools,
- ceramic knives,
- TIC(N) hard alloy,
- coated tools,
- Ultrafine grain cemented carbide cutting tools etc.
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